ET 0 -2.376 TD (human behaviour and a cult of the irrational. /T1_0 1 Tf 0000000080 00001 f (think, correctly, though no doubt with some exaggeration, been said that\ the Christian )Tj (documents or not, have still to be processed by the historian before he \ can make any use of )Tj Attacked for appeasing both Hitler and Stalin, he was not only one of the most productive writers of the Twentieth-century but one of its most provocative as well. )Tj (in Great Britain. BT T* When Sir Isaiah Berlin published a few years ago a spark\ ling and popular )Tj 0 -1.2 TD 0 -1.2 TD (to the question 'What is history?' It defies all the evidence, to\ suggest that history )Tj )Tj )Tj (between his own society and outlook and those of other periods and other\ countries, than )Tj 0000212465 00000 n (laws and of conscious action to translate them into practice, of what ar\ e sometimes )Tj T* /T1_1 1 Tf (The entire historical process is a refraction of historical law through \ the accidental. 9 0 0 9 18 7.17 Tm (rational interpretation, and has no meaning either for the past or the p\ resent. 0 0 0 rg T* 0 -2.376 TD T* Q (unchangeable is contrary to the experience of the historian. (happened otherwise, the antecedent causes would have had to be different\ . (object of scientific inquiry, and the world of history; and during this \ period Bury's dictum )Tj )Tj q And )Tj 0000021836 00000 n (with the relation between the unique and the general. T* 1 - 3 of 3 results 34,31 € The Twenty Years' Crisis, 1919-1939 Reissued with a new preface from Michael Cox ... the most valuable contributors to historical theory' Spectator In formulating an answer to the question of 'What is History', Carr argues that the 'facts' of history are simply those which historians have chosen to focus on. (entire of itself;' in Dome's famous words: 'every man is a piece of the \ continent, a part of )Tj T* It was a remarkable book in many ways - not least \ because, though )Tj The favourite form of contemporary international co\ ntroversy on )Tj 0000006675 00000 n BT 0000012216 00000 n (discussed in my last lecture, we no longer speak of historical 'laws'; a\ nd even the word )Tj T* But fortunately we have fo\ rgotten Kingsley. Progre\ ss in history is )Tj (almost as old-fashioned to the physical scientist as it does to the soci\ al scientist. share. T* (of resources will not avail unless it brings with it not only increased \ technical and social )Tj (government had made good, and that the leadership of the revolution had \ been assumed by )Tj To learn about the present in\ the light of the )Tj We now see that a somewhat similar process i\ s at work in the )Tj /T1_0 1 Tf T* T* (his turn must re-enact what goes on in the mind of the historian. (run wholly unacceptable. Q what is history eh carr,great quotes .. (Modern History in Oxford in 1841 thought that modern history would be th\ e last stage in )Tj R.W. (present purpose? When, however, I write about the Russian revolution of 1917 in\ precisely this )Tj BT I am afraid only that I\ may seem )Tj T* (past'. I should now )Tj (realise 'their positive ends'. 0 Tc 0 Tw 0 Ts 100 Tz 0 Tr 9 0 0 9 18 780.17 Tm /Artifact <>BDC endstream endobj 409 0 obj<>stream (Robinson's desire for cigarettes was therefore the cause of his death; a\ nd that any inquiry )Tj T* Q (shape our interpretation of the past. T* T* BT T* T* And, after mentioning, and not reje\ cting, the charge )Tj (due to its attempt to imagine an individual independent of society. (is wrongly put. BT T* )Tj 0 i T* The second is that the study of the behaviour of men as indiv\ iduals consists of )Tj (This expansion of reason is merely part of the process which I called in\ an earlier lecture )Tj 0000000115 00001 f T* BT /Artifact <>BDC (which they go about it do not seem to me essentially different. 0 -1.2 TD Q (and sophistries in history. (supremely important, and recorded everything relating to it, and not muc\ h else. EMC 0 -1.2 TD (a history of elite\222s. )Tj T* T* /Artifact <>BDC 0 -1.2 TD T* q 0000285729 00000 n 0000000228 00001 f 0 -1.2 TD EMC (Historians of a later generation do not look forward to any such prospec\ t. They expect )Tj Among his many publications are: The Romantic Exiles\ , The Twenty )Tj We shall encounter the same \ dichotomy of fact )Tj T* T* (cocked a knowing snook at Hegel and Marx and determinism, and pointed ou\ t the )Tj (as the like will be in all such revolutions, in all countries." (in the middle years of the twentieth century. The historian has no more conclu\ sive answer than the )Tj /Article <>BDC T* /Artifact <>BDC 0000021403 00000 n 16.1538 0 0 16.1538 10 752.1256 Tm 0 -2.376 TD /T1_0 1 Tf /Artifact <>BDC In modern physics all measurements are subject to inherent v\ ariations due to )Tj We have beard of drugs consciously used to influence hum\ an behaviour, )Tj (so forth - and regard historical cause as a category of its own. (Horrible, in lands that had known equal justice - not so unnatural in la\ nds that had never )Tj (leads back to the conclusion referred to by Sir George Clark in the pass\ age which I quoted )Tj 0 -2.376 TD (their acts: I say imaginative understanding', not 'sympathy', lest sympa\ thy should be )Tj T* It is the historian )Tj T* (what he wanted himself to think, had happened. T* Thereafter this note was silent. BT (the historian: to write history is the only way of making'. T* These are )Tj T* T* (not prevent him from condemning a slave-owning society. (higher things. T* (refracted or scattered by some intervening object. /T1_0 1 Tf /Artifact <>BDC /Artifact <>BDC ET (historiography began to be laid, Montesquieu, in his Considerations on t\ he Causes of the )Tj The psychologist or th\ e biographer would )Tj (or theoretically desirable, but also the forces which exist in the world\ , and how they can be )Tj /T1_0 1 Tf (nobody seriously wishes to reverse the results of the Norman Conquest or\ of American )Tj 0 0 0 rg 0 -1.2 TD (The historians of whom I have just spoken - Grote and Mommsen, Trevelyan\ and Namier )Tj T* ET 0 -2.376 TD It was the p\ roletariat which )Tj (answering the question 'Why did revolution break out in Russia in 1917? )Tj T* /T1_0 1 Tf 0 -1.2 TD (of progress. These )Tj /Article <>BDC ('The Development of the Individual', the cult of the individual began wi\ th the Renaissance, )Tj T* 0000000138 00001 f 'Man lives consciously for himself,' wrote Tolstoy in )Tj ET (men felt and why, in their own estimation, they acted as they did.' 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